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Descartes took his own (assumed) indubitable existence and the contents of his ideas to be foundational knowledge
Knowledge arises from coherence among sets of statements we have accepted as true
Foundationalist counter: Knowledge rests on a special class of statements the verificaiton of which doesn't depend on other beliefs
Infinitism requires a good knowledge claim to be supported by an infinite string of non-repeating reasons
Foundationalist counter: We can never possess a chain of non-repeating reasons
Coherentism: Arguments in favour of any claim will eventually loop back on themselves, and they are therefore rationally acceptable as long as the circle of justifications is large enough
Foundationalist counter: This is circular reasoning
Holistic approach: "beliefs are justified by being inferentially related to other beliefs in the overall context of a coherent system"
Avoids linear justification
"Each belief made more probably by the rest of the system"