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A state or the Federal Government cannot set up a church, create laws that aid one religion, all religions, or prefer one religion over another.
legislative power must have a secular purpose that does not help or hinder religion
In the case of Schempp, the exercises that were required by law was a religious ceremony and was intended to be so by the state
of this, the required religious exercises are being conducted in violation of the the first amendment.
Some may say that students should study comparative religion or history of religion for their education to be complete. In this case, the exercises being performed do not fit into these categories.
Of this, the state must have a neutral front, not hindering the free exercise of religion, but also not the promotion of.
Even though parents had the option to not have their students participate, this still does not prevent the schools activities from violating the Establishment Clause.
In the case of Zorach v. Clauson, the same conditions were not present (activities were not at public spaces with participation by teachers) except for school attendance
The government must have neutrality when it comes to religion.
History has shown that powerful groups may bring about combining governmental and religious functions or dependency of one group upon the other which would create government support with that group.
The government cannot have preference of one religion over another.