You can use arrow keys to navigate in the map.
The States retain "a residuary and inviolable sovereignty..."
The 10th Amendment grants States a level of implicit sovereignty.
It states "the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively..."
The separation of State and Federal government is one of the Constitution's structural protections of liberty.
Congress has never assumed the Federal Government may command the State's executive power without constitutional authorization.
Language included in the Constitution and The Federalist always requires the States' consent to any responsibilities imposed by Congress.
It violates the "Necessary and Proper Clause" of the Tenth Amendment.
The Brady Act is not proper for carrying into Execution the Commerce Clause, but merely an act of usurpation.
When Congress passes a law, the President "shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed," personally and through officers whom he appoints.
The Brady Act transfers this responsibility to thousands of CLEOs across the nation, who lack meaningful Presidential control.
The Court held in New York v. United States that Congress cannot compel the States to enact or enforce a federal regulatory program.
Congress cannot circumvent that prohibition by forcing State officers to carry out Federal policy.
The Federal Government can't require States to address problems.
Such commands go against the foundational principles of our Constitution and dual sovereignty.
The Fed cannot command State officers to enforce a federal regulatory program.