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Giving criminals empathogens and having them face the effects they had on their victims, is a just punishment and could lead towards lower recidivism.
Even if it's most just, it's not practical because you can't force someone to empathize with those harmed.
The implementation of this idea can be through genetic engineering. We could engineer every single human on earth to be 200% more empathetic in the future. Which would be the ultimate solution to all crime.
I really like this idea but I have to ask, what is the highest state of empathy? Can it be scientifically determined? Can it be empirically observed? Is it objective?
But this nature of punishment doesn't appear, at face value, to have the deterrent effect of the removal of liberty.
Being an effective deterrent is a key part of a good punishment.
I would rather feel empathy for someone whose family I have killed than many other things, e.g. life sentence, limbs burnt off, ...