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The first police force in the U.S. was established in 1838 in Boston, hundreds of years after the first local government there.
Yes, a police force is required to enforce laws, but a government is much more than just the laws it makes for its citizens. It builds and maintains infrastructure, provides services, and handles trade and diplomacy with other countries.
There can be other means of enforcment (if this is the assumed role of the government) beyond physical, such as monetary restrictions or ostracization.
Without taxation there is no police force, and it is the police that provide the death threat for stealing energy/money.
Just because a tax-less government doesn't exist currently doesn't mean it's impossible.
The governmental role doesnt necessarily need to be based on enforcement but could be organizational or beurocratic only (such as in a neo liberal or anarchistic society where the power has been minimized) .
Kant's social contract said that the governments main purpose is to protect it's citizens.